Issues and Debates

Students are required to have an understanding of the several issues and debates within psychology. An understanding of these is useful when evaluating empirical research across all three exams within the specification.


  • Ethics
  • Ecological validity
  • Longitudinal and Snapshot
  • Qualitative and Quantitative data


  • Determinism vs Free-Will
  • Reductionism vs Holism
  • Nature vs Nurture
  • Ethnocentrism
  • Psychology as a science
  • Individual vs Situational Explanations
  • The Usefulness of Psychological Research

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